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Mathematics and the History of Mathematics Websites

4000 Years of Women in Science
Women are, and always have been, scientists. This site lists over 125 women from the scientific and technical past. This site grew out of the public talks given by Dr. Sethanne Howard, currently with the National Science Foundation.

The Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads
This site provides all the information you would ever wanted to know about the Abacus. Sections of this website include the following: Introduction (Construction & Anatomy ∑ Evolution ∑ Java Applet ∑ The Abacus Today); History (The Counting Board ∑ The Salamis Tablet ∑ An Evolutionary Timeline); Addition & Subtraction (Instructions for performing addition & subtraction on the abacus); The Abacus vs. The Electric Calculator (In 1946, a contest was held in Tokyo, that pitted an abacus against an electric calculator; the abacus won, of course); and Additional Resources.

AMS's Materials Organized by Mathematical Subject Classification
The table of contents lists the main sections of the 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Some links may be found under each heading to electronic journals, preprints, Web sites and pages, databases and other pertinent material. There is also a page of "Materials Organized by Mathematical Topics". This page was developed from the list at Trinity College Dublin made by D.R. Wilkins.

Ancient Mathematics at the Library of Congress Vatican Exhibit
This website is devoted to a discussion and elaboration of the Library of Congressís Vatican exhibit that ran in 1994. Here, viewers can see pictures of 9th and 10th century transcriptions of many of the classic mathematical works of Ancient Greece. With each picture, there is a short description of the crux of the work as well as dialogue on the specific page shown. For example, you can see a page from Euclidís Elements which gives the ancient Greek proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. In addition to the mathematics, one can see Ptolemyís Geography and Greek Astronomy.

This site is a collection of Archimedean miscellanea under continual development. The author, Chris Rorres, is filling in the on-site links with textual and graphical materials that he has collected over the years. In addition, here are some off-site links to basic information about Archimedes.

The Art of Algebra from al-Khwarizmi to Viete: A Study in the Natural Selection of Ideas
A comprehensive following of the notation and elaboration of algebra from its beginnings in Baghdad with al-Khwarizmi to Francois Viete in France. Along the way, viewers can see the evolution of the notation form written to syncopated to completely algebraic. In addition, viewers can click on links to find out more about each major mathematicianís work and accomplishments.

Biographies of Women Mathematicians (Agnes Scott College)
These pages are part of an on-going project by students in mathematics classes at Agnes Scott College, in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate the numerous achievements of women in the field of mathematics. There are biographical essays or comments on most of the women mathematicians and some photos (which look best at more than 256 colors). Our goal is for this list to continue to expand, and for more biographies to be completed.

A Brief History of Algebra and Computing: An Eclectic Oxonian View
This homepage is maintained by Jonathan Bowen (Oxford University Computing Laboratory,UK). It is a hypertext article with hyperlinks to the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Bowenís article is divided into six parts: The Origins of Algebra, Early English Algebra, Algebra and Analytical Engines, Boolean Algebra, Algebra and Computing, and Recent Developments in the Algebra of Programs.

CAMEL: Women in Mathematics
These pages contain information and links of interest to women in mathematics and to women contemplating careers in mathematics. At present, there are pages on the following topics: Educational Issues for Girls and Women in Mathematics, Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Organizations for Women in Mathematics, Books, Articles, Speeches and Bibliographies of Interest to Women in Mathematics, Miscellaneous Mathematical Links of Interest to Women.

Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics
These pages attempt to show the first uses of various words used in mathematics. Research for these pages is ongoing, and the uses cited should not be assumed to be the first uses that occurred unless it is stated that the term was introduced by the mathematician named.

Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols
These pages show the names of the individuals who first used various common mathematical symbols, and the dates the symbols first appeared. The most important written source is the definitive A History of Mathematical Notations by Florian Cajori.

Favorite Mathematical Constants
All numbers are not created equal; that certain constants appear at all and then echo throughout mathematics, in seemingly independent ways, is a source of fascination. This site is maintained by Steven Finch. It provides information on a collection of well known, and some more obscure constants.

The Galileo Project
The Galileo Project is a hypertext source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time. The project is supported by the Office of the Vice President of Computing of Rice University. The initial stages were made possible by a grant from the Council on Library Resources to Fondren Library.

The Geometry Center
The Geometry Center is a mathematics research and education center at the University of Minnesota. The Center has a unified mathematics computing environment supporting math and computer science research, mathematical visualization, software development, application development, video animation production, and K-16 math education.

The History of Mathematics
This web site is maintained by D. R. Wilkins (Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland). It includes biographies of seventeenth and eighteenth century mathematicians from W.W. Rouse Ballís A Short Account of the History of Mathematics: including George Berkeley, Sir William Rowan Hamilton, George Boole and Sir Isaac Newton.

History of Mathematics
This site is maintained by Len Berggren (Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada). Students at Simon Fraser University write the articles posted on this website.

History and Pedagogy of Mathematics
The History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter is the communication of the International Study Group on the Relations Between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics, an affiliate of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.

History of Mathematics Web Resources
This source is maintained by David E. Joyce (Clark University, USA). Itís a good place to find more general information.

MacTutor History of Mathematics
The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive was created and is maintained by John O'Connor and Edmund Robertson. It was developed initially as part of the Mathematical MacTutor system for learning and experimenting with mathematics. The archive contains the biographies of more than 1300 mathematicians. You can access them from a selection of Alphabetical or Chronological Biographical indexes. The authors have written some articles on the development of mathematical ideas cross-referenced to the biographies. You can access these using the History Topics Index. There is a collection of more than 60 articles on Famous Curves which have been extensively studied by mathematicians, giving their history as well as pictures of the curves. If your browser is capable of handling JAVA, you have the option of experimenting with these curves in an interactive way.

The Math Forum
This site is a virtual center for math education on the internet. It includes an extensive math history resource collection.

Mathematics: Ancient History and Its Modern Fates
The major emphasis is Greek Mathematics and Astronomy, Ptolemy's Geography.

Mathematics Pronunciation Guide
This guide includes most mathematicians and mathematical terms that may be encountered in high school and the first two years of college. Proper names are generally pronounced as in the original language. Kent Kromarek copyrights all information on this page.

The Mathematics Archives
This Send questions or comments the University of Tennessee is another list of links to math history articles and web pages.

The Mathematical Quotations Server
This site is maintained by Mark Woodard (Furman University). It has a searchable list of quotations by mathematicians or about mathematics.

Mathematicians of the African Diaspora
This site contains a great deal of information about the history of African and African-American mathematicians from ancient to modern times.

MathPages: History of Mathematics
This site is a collection of hypertext articles on various mathematical subjects.

Mayan Mathematics
This site is devoted to the mathematics and the numeral system of the Maya Indians.

The Measurers: A Flemish Image of Mathematics in the Sixteenth Century
This virtual version of the exhibition displayed at the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford during 1995 is derived from the printed catalog that accompanied the exhibition and includes over 6000 words of text together with some 150 or so images illustrating a selection of the objects on display.

The Museum of the History of Science at the University of Oxford
The Museum of the History of Science houses an unrivalled collection of historic scientific instruments in the world's oldest surviving purpose-built museum building in Oxford, England. The present collection of the Museum preserves the material relics of past science. As a department of the University of Oxford, the Museum has a role both in making these relics available for study by historians who are willing to look beyond the traditional confines of books and manuscripts as well as presenting them to the visiting public. The museum offers several on-line exhibitions.

An Outline of the History of Game Theory
A comprehensive listing of a time line of Game Theory from the Talmud to 1994ís Nobel prize winning John Nash, John C. Harsanyi and Richard Selten. Along the way, viewers can see more elaborate discussions on the topic as well as a biography of important papers and books on the subject.

The sci.math FAQ
This is a compilation of Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers) about Mathematics. Topics range from trivia and the trivial to advanced subjects such as Wiles recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.

The Virtual Museum of Computing
This virtual museum includes an eclectic collection of World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks connected with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits available both locally and around the world.

A Visual Dictionary of Plane Curves
The goal of the project is to produce materials that demonstrate interesting properties of plane curves visually. Many concepts or properties of plane curves such as cusp, tangent, evolute, involute, envelope, are more readily explained by an illustration or animation. The mathematics in these pages is beginning at the college level. Overall, this project is designed to educate and entertain.

Women in Mathematics Links
This website provides information for and about women in mathematics. You can look for information of organizations for women in mathematics; programs, grants, and scholarships for women in mathematics; articles and reports about women in mathematics including links to biographies of famous past and present women mathematicians; information on getting young girls interested in mathematics; and much more.

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Last modified on February 19, 2004