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Mathematics and the History of Mathematics Websites
4000 Years of Women in Science
Women are, and always have been, scientists. This site lists over
125 women from the scientific and technical past. This site grew
out of the public talks given by Dr. Sethanne Howard, currently
with the National Science Foundation.
The Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads
This site provides all the information you would ever wanted to
know about the Abacus. Sections of this website include the following:
Introduction (Construction & Anatomy ∑ Evolution ∑ Java Applet
∑ The Abacus Today); History (The Counting Board ∑ The Salamis
Tablet ∑ An Evolutionary Timeline); Addition & Subtraction (Instructions
for performing addition & subtraction on the abacus); The Abacus
vs. The Electric Calculator (In 1946, a contest was held in Tokyo,
that pitted an abacus against an electric calculator; the abacus
won, of course); and Additional Resources.
AMS's Materials Organized by Mathematical Subject Classification
The table of contents lists the main sections of the 1991 Mathematics
Subject Classification. Some links may be found under each heading
to electronic journals, preprints, Web sites and pages, databases
and other pertinent material. There is also a page of "Materials
Organized by Mathematical Topics". This page was developed from
the list at Trinity College Dublin made by D.R. Wilkins.
Ancient Mathematics at the Library of Congress Vatican Exhibit
This website is devoted to a discussion and elaboration of the
Library of Congressís Vatican exhibit that ran in 1994. Here,
viewers can see pictures of 9th and 10th century transcriptions
of many of the classic mathematical works of Ancient Greece. With
each picture, there is a short description of the crux of the
work as well as dialogue on the specific page shown. For example,
you can see a page from Euclidís Elements which gives the ancient
Greek proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. In addition to the mathematics,
one can see Ptolemyís Geography and Greek Astronomy.
This site is a collection of Archimedean miscellanea under continual
development. The author, Chris Rorres, is filling in the on-site
links with textual and graphical materials that he has collected
over the years. In addition, here are some off-site links to basic
information about Archimedes.
The Art of Algebra from al-Khwarizmi to Viete: A Study in
the Natural Selection of Ideas
A comprehensive following of the notation and elaboration of algebra
from its beginnings in Baghdad with al-Khwarizmi to Francois Viete
in France. Along the way, viewers can see the evolution of the
notation form written to syncopated to completely algebraic. In
addition, viewers can click on links to find out more about each
major mathematicianís work and accomplishments.
Biographies of Women Mathematicians (Agnes Scott College)
These pages are part of an on-going project by students in mathematics
classes at Agnes Scott College, in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate
the numerous achievements of women in the field of mathematics.
There are biographical essays or comments on most of the women
mathematicians and some photos (which look best at more than 256
colors). Our goal is for this list to continue to expand, and
for more biographies to be completed.
A Brief History of Algebra and Computing: An Eclectic Oxonian
This homepage is maintained by Jonathan Bowen (Oxford University
Computing Laboratory,UK). It is a hypertext article with hyperlinks
to the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Bowenís article
is divided into six parts: The Origins of Algebra, Early English
Algebra, Algebra and Analytical Engines, Boolean Algebra, Algebra
and Computing, and Recent Developments in the Algebra of Programs.
CAMEL: Women in Mathematics
These pages contain information and links of interest to women
in mathematics and to women contemplating careers in mathematics.
At present, there are pages on the following topics: Educational
Issues for Girls and Women in Mathematics, Biographies of Women
Mathematicians, Organizations for Women in Mathematics, Books,
Articles, Speeches and Bibliographies of Interest to Women in
Mathematics, Miscellaneous Mathematical Links of Interest to Women.
Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics
These pages attempt to show the first uses of various words used
in mathematics. Research for these pages is ongoing, and the uses
cited should not be assumed to be the first uses that occurred
unless it is stated that the term was introduced by the mathematician
Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols
These pages show the names of the individuals who first used various
common mathematical symbols, and the dates the symbols first appeared.
The most important written source is the definitive A History
of Mathematical Notations by Florian Cajori.
Favorite Mathematical Constants
All numbers are not created equal; that certain constants appear
at all and then echo throughout mathematics, in seemingly independent
ways, is a source of fascination. This site is maintained by Steven
Finch. It provides information on a collection of well known,
and some more obscure constants.
The Galileo Project
The Galileo Project is a hypertext source of information on the
life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of
his time. The project is supported by the Office of the Vice President
of Computing of Rice University. The initial stages were made
possible by a grant from the Council on Library Resources to Fondren
The Geometry Center
The Geometry Center is a mathematics research and education center
at the University of Minnesota. The Center has a unified mathematics
computing environment supporting math and computer science research,
mathematical visualization, software development, application
development, video animation production, and K-16 math education.
The History of Mathematics
This web site is maintained by D. R. Wilkins (Trinity College,
Dublin, Ireland). It includes biographies of seventeenth and eighteenth
century mathematicians from W.W. Rouse Ballís A Short Account
of the History of Mathematics: including George Berkeley,
Sir William Rowan Hamilton, George Boole and Sir Isaac Newton.
History of Mathematics
This site is maintained by Len Berggren (Simon Fraser University,
Burnaby, Canada). Students at Simon Fraser University write the
articles posted on this website.
History and Pedagogy of Mathematics
The History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter is the communication
of the International Study Group on the Relations Between History
and Pedagogy of Mathematics, an affiliate of the International
Commission on Mathematical Instruction.
History of Mathematics Web Resources
This source is maintained by David E. Joyce (Clark University,
USA). Itís a good place to find more general information.
MacTutor History of Mathematics
The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive was created and is
maintained by John O'Connor and Edmund Robertson. It was developed
initially as part of the Mathematical MacTutor system for learning
and experimenting with mathematics. The archive contains the biographies
of more than 1300 mathematicians. You can access them from a selection
of Alphabetical or Chronological Biographical indexes. The authors
have written some articles on the development of mathematical
ideas cross-referenced to the biographies. You can access these
using the History Topics Index. There is a collection of more
than 60 articles on Famous Curves which have been extensively
studied by mathematicians, giving their history as well as pictures
of the curves. If your browser is capable of handling JAVA, you
have the option of experimenting with these curves in an interactive
The Math Forum
This site is a virtual center for math education on the internet.
It includes an extensive math history resource collection.
Mathematics: Ancient History and Its Modern Fates
The major emphasis is Greek Mathematics and Astronomy, Ptolemy's
Mathematics Pronunciation Guide
This guide includes most mathematicians and mathematical terms
that may be encountered in high school and the first two years
of college. Proper names are generally pronounced as in the original
language. Kent Kromarek copyrights all information on this page.
The Mathematics Archives
This Send questions or comments the University of Tennessee is another
list of links to math history articles and web pages.
The Mathematical Quotations Server
This site is maintained by Mark Woodard (Furman University). It
has a searchable list of quotations by mathematicians or about
Mathematicians of the African Diaspora
This site contains a great deal of information about the history
of African and African-American mathematicians from ancient to
MathPages: History of Mathematics
This site is a collection of hypertext articles on various mathematical
This site is devoted to the mathematics and the numeral system
of the Maya Indians.
The Measurers: A Flemish Image of Mathematics in the Sixteenth
This virtual version of the exhibition displayed at the Museum
of the History of Science in Oxford during 1995 is derived from
the printed catalog that accompanied the exhibition and includes
over 6000 words of text together with some 150 or so images illustrating
a selection of the objects on display.
The Museum of the History of Science at the University of
The Museum of the History of Science houses an unrivalled collection
of historic scientific instruments in the world's oldest surviving
purpose-built museum building in Oxford, England. The present
collection of the Museum preserves the material relics of past
science. As a department of the University of Oxford, the Museum
has a role both in making these relics available for study by
historians who are willing to look beyond the traditional confines
of books and manuscripts as well as presenting them to the visiting
public. The museum offers several on-line exhibitions.
An Outline of the History of Game Theory
A comprehensive listing of a time line of Game Theory from the
Talmud to 1994ís Nobel prize winning John Nash, John C. Harsanyi
and Richard Selten. Along the way, viewers can see more elaborate
discussions on the topic as well as a biography of important papers
and books on the subject.
The sci.math FAQ
This is a compilation of Frequently Asked Questions (and their
answers) about Mathematics. Topics range from trivia and the trivial
to advanced subjects such as Wiles recent proof of Fermat's Last
The Virtual Museum of Computing
This virtual museum includes an eclectic collection of World Wide
Web (WWW) hyperlinks connected with the history of computing and
on-line computer-based exhibits available both locally and around
A Visual Dictionary of Plane Curves
The goal of the project is to produce materials that demonstrate
interesting properties of plane curves visually. Many concepts
or properties of plane curves such as cusp, tangent, evolute,
involute, envelope, are more readily explained by an illustration
or animation. The mathematics in these pages is beginning at the
college level. Overall, this project is designed to educate and
Women in Mathematics Links
This website provides information for and about women in mathematics.
You can look for information of organizations for women in mathematics;
programs, grants, and scholarships for women in mathematics; articles
and reports about women in mathematics including links to biographies
of famous past and present women mathematicians; information on
getting young girls interested in mathematics; and much more.