Day 2: Genetics
I. Note to the teacher: Before you begin this lesson, refer to the advice section again!
II. Genetics Topics to be covered: gene, allele, dominant gene, recessive gene, P generation, F1 generation, F2 generation, offspring, genotype, phenotype, deviation percentage, Punnett Square, compound probability, carriers
III. Probability Topics): sample space, independent events, Law of large numbers, deviation percentage
IV. Background We are at a
moment in history during which more is being unveiled about the human make-up
than at any other time in our entire existence!
The Department of Energy is sponsoring The Genome Project has endeavored to unveil the 100,000 or
more bits of information that help make up who we are: genes.
These scientists are well on there way to reaching their goal of 90% discovery by the summer of 2000! Celera,
a privately funded company claims to have already completed this project as of
Celera, a privately funded company claims to have already completed this project as of April 2000!
V. Rationale: Our genotype is our genetic code which describes us at the cellular level. Our phenotype is the outward expression that everybody sees of our genotype. This lesson is designed to give the students a chance build upon their conception of probability as they develop an understanding of genetics. How can we use the mathematical principals backing probability to better understand real life situations such as genetic make-up?
VI. Learning Objectives:
Students will be able to explore concepts surrounding genetics through the use of a computer program: Scout and Cane.
Students will be able to
create their own definitions of concepts (see above) in genetics as they
work in pairs.
will be able to make a connections between a previous lesson in
probability and the new concepts in genetics.
VII. Materials & Technology Needed:
Computer lab of one computer per two students computers, Microsoft Excel (you will need to activate the add on : Analysis Toolpack), copies of the provided question sheet, you will use the provided Scout and Cane program.
CLASSROOM (10-15 MIN)
Students will be exploring genetics via a program on this site called Scout and Cane.
Students will not be required to be silent but expect them to be talking only about the program
Time may be limited, but if possible allow for about 30 minutes in the lab
The worksheet of questions is to be provided to students in the classroom prior to leaving for the lab.
Explain that they may not get all of the answers, but talk to each other and explore as much as you can for the next 25 minutes.
Remember that we will be discussing the answers back in class.
Divide the class into working groups.
COMPUTER LAB (30 MIN)
Have the students initially focus on what each color represents.
Directions for using Scout and Cane: HIT F9 AND SEE WHAT HAPPENS! Each time F9 is pressed, a new litter of puppies is born.
Give the students 5 minutes to explore on their own.
Use the remaining time wisely and explore all three sheets of questions and charts
Take turns Pressing F9 and being the note taker.
CLASSROOM II (25 MIN)
Post the concepts listed in (II.) on the board.
Begin by asking if anybody would like to propose their own explanation of a concept. Have them give examples relevant to Scout and Cane. Encourage them to use their own language.
Continue through the list until it is complete.
HOMEWORK complete the responses to chart.
Have the students create three Punnett squares on their own. The first should be an example of simple probability with the P - generation homozygous dominant. The second generation (F1) should be created from one of the off spring from the first generation and a new parent. Both parents should be heterozygous. The final generation (F2) should be created again from one off-spring from F1 and a new homozygous recessive mate.
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