## MathematicsGuidelines | Project Activities | Interactive Projects | Presentations | Related Links ## GuidelinesWe have devised a set of guidelines to shape our development of activities and materials. These guidelines reflect what we believe to be appropriate uses of technology in mathematics teaching. Many of our activities follow the guidelines below, as applicable: ## Introduce technology in context## Address worthwhile mathematics with appropriate pedagogy## Take advantage of technology## Connect mathematics topics## Incorporate multiple representations
Technology should not be used to carry out procedures without appropriate mathematical and technological understanding (e.g., inserting rote formulas into spreadsheets). Nor should it be used in ways that can distract from the underlying mathematics (e.g., adding too many bells and whistles in a PowerPoint presentation that the mathematics gets lost). In other words, mathematical content should not be compromised. Another way to prevent technology use from compromising mathematics is to encourage users to connect their experiential findings to more formal aspects of mathematics. For example, students using software to explore geometric shapes and relationships should be asked to use previously proved theorems to validate their empirical results, or use their new findings to propose new conjectures. In other words, technology should not influence students to take things at face value or to become what Schoenfeld (1985) referred to as "naive empiricists." This guideline is in accord with the second recommendation of the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Panel on Educational Technology (1997): "Emphasize content and pedagogy, and not just hardware" (p. 7).
Using technology to teach the same mathematical topics, in fundamentally the same ways, that could be taught without technology does not strengthen students' learning of mathematics and belies the usefulness of technology. Furthermore, using technology to perform tasks that are just as easily or even better carried out without technology may actually be a hindrance to learning. Such uses of technology may convince teachers and administrators that preparing teachers to use technology is not worth the considerable effort and expense necessary to do so. This guideline supports the technology principle of NCTM Principles and Standards of School Mathematics: "Teachers should use technology to enhance their students learning opportunities by selecting or creating mathematical tasks that take advantage of what technology can do efficiently and well- graphing, visualizing and computing" (NCTM, 2000, p. 25).
Goldenberg, E.P. (1988). Mathematics, metaphors, and human factors:
Mathematical, technical, and pedagogical challenges in the educational
use of graphical representations. Jiang, Z., & McClintock, E. (2000). Multiple approaches to problem
solving and the use of technology. Leinhardt, G., Zaslavsky, O., & Stein, M.K. (1990). Functions, graphs,
and graphing: Tasks, learning and teaching. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). -----. (2000). President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Panel
on Educational Technology. (1997). Schoenfeld, A. (1985). |
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